Posts in CFPB.

On November 30, 2021, the Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection's ("CFPB") October and December 2020 Final Rules take effect. Among other things, the October and December 2020 Final Rules address communications with consumers under the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act ("FDCPA"). Created in 1977, the FDCPA was intended to "eliminate abusive debt collection practices by debt collectors, to insure that those debt collectors who refrain from using abusive debt collection practices are not competitively disadvantaged, and to promote consistent state action to protect ...

Posted in: CFPB, Debt Collection

On August 31, 2021, a new final rule amending Regulation X’s mortgage servicing rules for borrowers experiencing hardship due to COVID-19 will take effect. The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (“CFPB”) hopes that these provisions will prevent a new foreclosure crisis when the majority of existing foreclosure moratoria implemented by state and federal governments expire over the course of this summer. A mastery of these new provisions will be essential knowledge for lenders, loan servicers, and their counsel in the coming months and years ahead.

Here are five major ...

Posted in: CFPB, COVID-19

On June 29, 2020, the United States Supreme Court held that the structure of the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (“CFPB”) is unconstitutional. Specifically, the Court held that the CFPB director must be dischargeable at will by the president to prevent infringing upon the separation of powers between the legislative and the executive branches.  Chief Justice John Roberts wrote the majority decision. The ruling may create an avenue to challenge nearly a decade’s worth of rulings and penalties issued by the CFPB since its creation in 2010.

Appellant Siela Law argued that ...

Posted in: CFPB, Supreme Court

On April 29, 2020, the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) issued an interpretive rule allowing certain consumers to modify to waive certain waiting periods required under the Truth in Lending Act (TILA) and the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (RESPA). Per the CFPB, this interpretive rule is intended to ease the way for consumers with urgent financial needs to obtain access to mortgage credit more quickly during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Ordinarily, the TILA-RESPA Integrated Disclosure (TRID) Rule imposes certain disclosure requirements and waiting periods ...

Posted in: CFPB, TILA

On April 14, 2020, the Consumer Financial Bureau (CFPB), Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC), National Credit Union Administration (NCUA), Comptroller of the Currency (OCC), and Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (FRB) issued an interagency statement advising financial institutions of existing flexibilities and exceptions that may be useful during the COVID-19 pandemic with respect to real estate evaluations and appraisals.

  1. Physical Property Inspections

Currently, exterior and interior property inspections are not required by the appraisal ...

Posted in: CFPB

On April 13, 2020, twenty-three Attorneys General sent a joint letter urging the CFPB to withdraw its recent guidance on Fair Credit Reporting Act (FCRA) requirements during the COVID-19 crisis.  The request came from Attorneys General of Pennsylvania, California, Colorado, the District of Columbia, Hawaii, Illinois, Iowa, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Oregon, Puerto Rico, Rhode Island, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, and Wisconsin.

In the letter, the Attorneys General responded to the CFPB’s April 1 ...

Posted in: CFPB, FCRA
Tags: cfpb, fcra

On April 1, 2020, the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) issued a Statement on Supervisory and Enforcement Practices Regarding the Fair Credit Reporting Act and Regulation V in Light of the CARES Act (Policy Statement). To highlight the importance of credit reporting during the current crisis, the CFPB issued the Policy Statement to outline the responsibility of furnishers under the CARES Act, and its “flexibility” as it relates to compliance under the Fair Credit Reporting Act (FCRA) and Regulation V. Particularly, to better manage the crisis and maintain ...

Posted in: CFPB, FCRA

On October 18, 2019, the Supreme Court granted the petition for a writ of certiorari filed in Seila Law LLC v. Consumer Financial Protection Bureau. In granting the petition, the Court agreed to take up two distinct issues. First, whether the vesting of substantial executive authority in the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (“CFPB”), an independent agency led by a single director, violates the separation of powers clause of the Constitution. Second, if the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau is found unconstitutional on the basis of the separation of powers, whether 12 ...

Posted in: CFPB, Dodd-Frank Act
Tags: cfpb

On May 7, 2019, the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (“Bureau” or “CFPB”) issued a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (“NPRM”) to implement the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act (“FDCPA”).  The full NPRM is 538 pages and can be found here.  Among other things, the proposal attempts to set limits on the number of calls that debt collectors may place on a weekly basis, clarify how collectors may communicate using new technologies and require collectors to provide additional information to consumers to help them identify debts.   The Bureau has set a deadline of Monday ...

On Tuesday the D.C. Circuit Court of Appeals issued what is already being touted as a landmark ruling in PHH Corp. v. Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, No. 15-1177, 2016 WL 5898801 (D.C. Cir. Oct. 11, 2016), holding in a 2-1 decision that the structure of the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (the "CFPB"), and specifically its organization as a "single-Director independent agency" with no meaningful Presidential oversight, violates Article II of the United States Constitution, which in relevant part vests the authority to "take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed" in ...

The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau ("CFPB") issued updated examination procedures it will use to assess lender compliance with the Military Lending Act rule ("MLA"). The MLA rule was amended in 2015 and the new requirements for lines of credit, installment loans, and deposit advances go into effect on October 3, 2016. Credit card issuers have a later compliance date of October 3, 2017. The MLA applies to active duty servicemembers and covered dependents. The amendment expands the types of products covered by the MLA, requiring enhanced disclosures, and restricting loan ...

Early in the morning on July 28, 2016, in coordination with the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau's (the "Bureau") field hearing on debt collection being held the same day in Sacramento, California, the Bureau released a detailed outline of proposals under consideration for debt collection rulemaking. While the proposals only cover third-party debt collection issues, the Bureau indicated that they plan to address first-party collectors and creditors with similar proposals at a later date. We expect that many of the same principles outlined in the third-party proposals will ...

Posted in: CFPB

The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) released a special edition of its supervision report, honing in on mortgage servicers on June 22nd [1]. It blamed outdated technology and process breakdown for trends it has seen with violations of the CFPB's 2014 servicing rules. The primary areas of concern are communications and data related to loan modifications and servicing transfers.

Among the highlights of the report, CFPB examiners found that "information about loan modifications is late, incorrect, or deceptive, due to technological breakdowns or malfunctions ...

Posted in: CFPB, Mortgages

*Co-authored by Charles Davis [1]

On May 5, 2016, the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau ("CFPB") held its fourth field hearing on Arbitration and issued a proposed Rule that would prohibit the use of arbitration clauses that block consumers' participation in class actions in contracts for consumer financial products and services. The Rule would also require providers who use pre-dispute arbitration agreements to submit certain records relating to arbitral proceedings to the CFPB. The Rule is expected to take effect during the summer of 2017.

Upon issuance of the Final Rule ...

Posted in: Arbitration, CFPB

On April 25, the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau ("CFPB") entered into a Consent Order with a New Jersey debt collection law firm, Pressler & Pressler, LLP, and two of its managing partners, Sheldon H. Pressler, and Gerard J. Felt (collectively "the Firm").[1]

The Firm agreed to pay a civil penalty of $1 million dollars in addition to adhering to the provisions contained within the Order. This Order raises questions about whether there is or should be a limit to the federal regulation of attorney practice and litigation strategy. The CFPB appears to be asserting authority ...

Posted in: CFPB, FDCPA

The CFPB received a lesson in the importance of specificity on April 21st when the United States District Court for the District of Columbia's Judge Richard J. Leon found that it overreached in its attempt to enforce a Civil Investigative Demand ("CID") it served on the Accrediting Council for Independent Colleges and Schools ("ACICS").

The Opinion warned the CFPB to be "especially prudent before choosing to plow head long into fields not clearly ceded to them by Congress". Yet the takeaway for the CFPB is likely one related to the editing of its CID language rather than a true ...

Posted in: CFPB
It's finally here. Over the weekend, the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau's (CFPB) long awaited and oft delayed integration of the disclosures required by the Federal Truth in Lending Act (TILA) and Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (RESPA) known as the TILA-RESPA Integrated Disclosure or "TRID" for short, became effective. TRID applies to most closed-end consumer credit transactions secured by real property. Specifically, TRID applies to those who did not close on their loans, or who applied for a loan, on or after Saturday October 3, 2015. For those covered, TRID means ...
Posted in: CFPB, RESPA, TILA

In Cooper v. Fay Servicing, LLC, 2015 WL 4470213 (S.D. Ohio July 17, 2015), the mortgagors sued the servicer of their real estate loan asserting claims for alleged violations of Regulation X relating to the loss mitigation process. Critical to this case was the timing of the loss mitigation process that resulted in the alleged Regulation X violations, the date of the foreclosure filing, and the date of the foreclosure sale. Specifically, the foreclosure proceeding was initiated on January 4, 2014, six days prior to the effective date of the CFPB's new Mortgage Rules, while the alleged ...

Posted in: CFPB, Foreclosure, Ohio

Beginning August 31, 2015, the CFPB will begin supervising nonbank auto finance companies pursuant to 12 C.F.R. 1090.108. The Final Rule provides that auto finance companies that qualify as "larger participants of a market for automobile financing" will be subject to the new regulation. The Dodd-Frank Act gave the CFPB supervisory authority over "larger participants" of certain markets for consumer financial products or services, as defined by the CFPB. See 12 U.S.C. 5514(a)(1)(B). In June 2015, the CFPB finalized its larger participant regulation as it relates to the ...

Posted in: CFPB, Dodd-Frank Act
On August 4, 2015 the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) issued a compliance bulletin on the private mortgage insurance (PMI) cancellation and termination provisions contained in the Homeowners Protection Act (HPA). The HPA applies to residential mortgage loans consummated on or after July 29, 1999. The Bulletin provides guidance from the CFPB on requirements in the HPA and lists specific examples of conduct the CFPB considers non-compliant. Prior to passage of the HPA, there were no federally imposed requirements on PMI. The HPA set an 80% loan to value threshold for ...
Posted in: CFPB, Mortgages
On August 5, 2015, PHH Corp. ("PHH") won a stay of the $109M penalty handed down by Consumer Financial Protection Bureau ("CFPB") director Rich Cordray. Cordray's aggressive legal reasoning and the harsh penalties he imposed, in what was the first ever appellate decision in a CFPB enforcement action, have already sent shockwaves around the financial services industry. The case began as a CFPB enforcement action alleging that PHH had violated the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act ("RESPA") by allegedly tying mortgage insurance referrals from PHH to agreements mortgage ...
Posted in: CFPB, RESPA
Most constitutional challenges to agency action arise as a defense to an enforcement action. However, State National Bank of Big Spring, Texas (the "Bank") has led a constitutional challenge to the very existence and structure of the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau ("CFPB") from day one. The CFPB was created by the 2010 Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act. The Bank's ambitious challenge to the constitutionality of the CFPB is rooted in five core arguments: 1) as an independent agency, the CFPB could not be headed by one person, Director Richard Cordray ...
Posted in: CFPB, Dodd-Frank Act
The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau ("CFPB" or "Bureau") released a study last week regarding the financial industry's use of pre-dispute arbitration agreements. This is the CFPB's third study on the issue since 2013, and, like the first two studies, reveals the Bureau's negative assessment of pre-dispute arbitration agreements. The Bureau initiated its investigation into the issue pursuant to Congress's authorization in the Dodd-Frank Act to analyze the impact of arbitration clauses in consumer contracts for financial products and services. Specifically, the ...
Posted in: Arbitration, CFPB

In Bryan v. Federal National Mortgage Association, 2014 WL 2988097 (M.D. Fla. July 2, 2014), plaintiffs alleged violations of RESPA and the applicable regulations set forth in 24 C.F.R. § 3500 and 12 C.F.R. § 1024.30, et seq. (Regulation X) against Seterus and Fannie Mae, respectively. The facts alleged that Fannie Mae was the "master servicer" of the note and mortgage, and Seterus was the "subservicer" of the note and mortgage. Specifically, plaintiffs alleged that defendants Seterus, and Fannie Mae by the failure of Seterus, failed to take timely action to respond to ...

The FTC and CFPB recently filed an amici curae brief supporting the U.S. District Court for the Central District of Illinois's decision denying defendants' motion to dismiss Plaintiff Juanita Delgado's Fair Debt Collection Practices Act ("FDCPA") claims. The brief was filed in connection with the CFPB's amicus program, which was announced in August 2012. In Delgado v. Capital Management Services, LP, Case No. 13-2030 (7th Cir. Aug. 14, 2013), Delgado filed a putative class action against a defendant debt collector and its affiliated companies alleging violations of the FDCPA ...

Posted in: CFPB, FDCPA, Illinois
Recent actions taken by the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau ("CFPB") reflect that ensuring the accuracy and completeness of information furnished to Consumer Reporting Agencies (CRAs) will be an area of emphasis. On that point, CFPB issued Bulletin 2013-09 emphasizing the Fair Credit Reporting Act's ("FCRA") requirement that CRAs notify a furnisher of information when a consumer disputes the accuracy or completeness of information provided by the furnisher to the CRA. In addition, the CRA is required to promptly provide the furnisher "all relevant information ...
Posted in: CFPB, FCRA
Tags: cfpb, CRA, fcra

Frank Springfield and Zachary Miller have written an article for the Business Law Section of the American Bar Association that was published in the Business Law Today. The article addresses the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau's ("CFPB") rule defining "larger participants" in the consumer debt collection market and the impact that the CFPB will have on the collection industry. The article also highlights changes that can be expected for attorneys practicing in this industry and recent decisions released by federal courts addressing the scope of the Fair Debt Collection ...

Posted in: CFPB, FDCPA
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